Persuasion researcher George Gordon's (1971) eclectic definition of propaganda suggested that most teachers and most textbooks, except those involved in teaching abstract skills, are inherently propagandistic. (In his chapter on "Education, Indoctrination, and Training," Gordon argued that one failure of the American educational system is that there is not enough propaganda in the lower grades, and too much in graduate schools. (Cited in Black J, 2001, p126)
Ellul (1981) argued that pervasive and potent propaganda that creates a world of fantasy, myth, and delusion is anathema to ethics because (a) the existence of power in the hands of propagandists does not mean it is right for them to use it (the is-ought problem); (b) propaganda destroys a sense of history and continuity and philosophy so necessary for a moral life; and (c) by supplanting the search for truth with imposed truth, propaganda destroys the basis for mutual thoughtful interpersonal communication and thus the essential ingredients of an ethical existence (Combs & Nimmo, 1993, p. 202; Cunningham, 1992; Ellul, 1981, pp. 159-177; Johannesen, 1983, p. 116 cited in Black J, 2001, p125)
Sila teliti turutan peristiwa ini:
The colonial powers invade the capital of Khilafah, Istanbul 1918.
The Bosporus strait succumbs to British and French Domination November 20th 1922.
The Conference of Lausanne begins. Britain has 4 demands:
1. Khilafah must be abolished
2. Khilafah must be deported
3. The Caliph's properties must be seized
4. The new Turkish state must be founded on secular basis
Mustafa Kemal begins to issue threats and takes on cunning manoeuvres to make all opposing parties accept the demands of the Englishmen. He forcibly carries demands of the British through political conspiracy.
An MP in the house of Commons protest against Lord Curzon (founder of the Treaty of Lausanne) by asking:
"Why Turkey granted independence while the Arab countries are occupied?"
(atau dalam bahasa Melayu-nya: "kenapa Malaya diberi kemerdekaan tetapi Selatan Siam masih terjajah?)
To this Lord Curzon answers:
"The point at issue is that Turkey has been destroyed and never rise again, because we have destroyed her spiritual power: the Khalifah and Islam"
Harap segalanya menjadi semakin jelas dan nyata. Terpulanglah pada tuan-tuan untuk membuat kajian selanjutnya dan menilainya sendiri. Semoga mendapat manafaat.