- azlyrahman-illuminations.blogspot.com and
It does not matter whether or not the Hang Tuah of the fifteenth century Melaka could also be the figure in Java of the fourteenth century. The important thing is that these two historically different periods are, culturally and essentially similar. They represent the highest peaks in the Malaysian medieval eras.
Historical reality is often too bitter to swallow or too hot to stand. History is a large mirror that reflects the facts of the past, and all that have been etched into the glass of history can never be erased. If you don't like a particular historical fact, you may try to cover it up or forget it, but you can never remove it.
Menurut catatan resmi dari Dinasti Tang yang berkuasa pada 618-905 M dan berdasarkan catatan serupa dalam buku A Brief Study of the Introduction of Islam to China karya Chen Yuen, Islam pertama kali datang ke China sekitar tahun 30 H atau 651 M.Disebutkan bahwa Islam masuk ke China melalui utusan yang dikirim oleh Khalifah Ustman bin Affan, yang memerintah selama 12 tahun atau pada periode 23-35 H / 644-656 M. Sementara menurut catatan Lui Tschih, penulis Muslim China pada abad ke 18 dalam karyanya Chee Chea Sheehuzoo (Perihal Kehidupan Nabi), Islam dibawa ke China oleh rombongan yang dipimpin Saad bin Abi Waqqas.Sebagian catatan lagi menyebutkan, Islam pertama kali datang ke China dibawa oleh panglima besar Islam, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, bersama sahabat lainnya pada tahun 616M. Catatan tersebut menyebutkan bahwa Saad bin Abi Waqqas dan tiga sahabat lainnya datang ke China dari Abyssinia atau yang sekarang dikenal dengan Etiopia. [kalau dari Afrika mesti jalan laut la yang paling sesuai!]According to another source, this was where some of Saad Abi Waqas companions landed in Semenanjung and carry on with the dakwah mission while Saad Abi Waqas proceed to meet the emperor of China.this part was further discussed in the following entry:
- Siapa kata JAWI Melayu punya?
 Until, when he [Zul-qarnain] came to the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had provided no covering protection against the sun… ‘Bring me blocks of iron.’ At length, when he had filled up the space between the two steep mountain sides, he said, ‘Blow (with your bellows)’ then, when he had made it (red) as fire, he said: ‘Bring me, that I may pour over it, molten lead.’
- Metallurgy Melayu?
- Daabatul-Ardhi - itu Malaikat?
- Naga di Masjid Demak?
“Demikian lagi bertilam beralas kuning, batang bantal kuning atau sapu tangan kuning, maka itu hukumnya dicarikkan oleh segala yang melihat itu…”
Daripada Hijrah Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wasalam, 1199H, iaitu tahun Ha, pada 28hb Safar, hari Isnin, bahawa pada ketika itu maka titah Yang DiPertuan Yang Maha Mulia [kalau hari ini merujuk kepada DYMM AGONG] ke atas jemala Datuk Bendahara menyuruh muafakat dengan segala pegawai mengaturkan segala adat pada fasal menyatakan aduran () hamba Allah taala...
Fasal pada menyatakan faedah raja-raja di dalam negeri. Maka tiap-tiap raja itu mengadakan ia pekerjaan dan suruh-suruhan seperti tandil dan penghulu pada khalifah, mata-mata dan bendahara pada majlis balai itu, dan pada majlis Istana Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain [rujuk Surah Al-Kahfi 83-85 dan seterusnya] kepada Paduka Seri Sultan yang di atas kerajaan sekarang maka adalah ia iaitu () akan martabat raja pada hal perintahkan segala adat tuannya atas segala menteri itu.Maka dihimpunkan hukum itu diatas sembilan hukum. Fasal yang pertama pada menyatakan adat majlis segala raja-raja dan adat pakaian sekalian raja-raja dan larangan segala raja-raja kepada pakai oleh sekalian rakyat...Demikian lagi memakai hulu keris emas seperti hardis dan barang sebungkal, itu pun tiada boleh dipakai orang lain melainkan dengan nama kurnia anugerah itu maka dapat. Jikalau orang memakai dia, maka hukumnya dirampas. Adapun memberi anak cucunya hulu keris emas itu melainkan bendahara juga, maka tiadalah orang lain dapat memakai dia....Itulah sifat segala raja-raja pada zaman dahulu kala turun temurun datang sekarang. Itulah kanun namanya.
Sebuah mural pada perabot dari Ayuthia yang di simpan di Muzium di Bangkok. "King Narai himself is said to have been under Iranian cultural influence in terms of his daily food and dress and his preferred architectural styles", M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Phd, "SAFINE-YE SOLAYMANI"this part was discussed in the following entry:
- Berkeris juga Raja Siam?
The Datuk Penghulu Istiadat then takes the pedestal tray containing the Government Keris and accompanies the Datuk Paduka Maharaja Lela to approach His Majesty. In front of the throne, the Datuk Paduka Maharaja Lela bows and receives the tray containing the Government Keris from the Datuk Penghulu Istiadat and steps up the throne until the third step, kneels and presents the Government Keris. His Majesty, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong receives the Keris, draws and kisses it. The Datuk Paduka Maharaja Lela steps down… [Malaysian Monarch website, 2008].
this part was discussed in the following entry:
- Berkeris Melayu menjunjung adat siapa?
Lastly the Malay ethnicity is also continuing the naga [dragon] snake cult. For an example, the Malay ethnicity has a family ancestral sword called a ‘Keris’ it is a wavy blade that is shaped to look much like a snake’s body. The handle of the sword is even designed to look like a serpent’s head which we call a ‘naga motif.’ The keris is a symbol of our ancestors, it is said to be the reincarnation of our ancestors and true Malays carry their family keris with them at all times and treat it as though it were a part of their body with its own life.
Totem was defined as an object, usually an animal or plant (or all animals or plants of that species), that is revered by members of a particular social group because of a mystical or ritual relationship that exists with that group. The totem may be regarded as a group symbol and as a protector of the members of the group. The symbol of the totem may be tattooed on the body, engraved on weapons, pictured in masks, carved on totem poles’.
- To the high authority;the politicians and the museum director
- The keris blacksmiths; experts
- The laymen.
The exhibition on traditional weapon especially keris, is related to our history. It is important to know that keris has the elements of art which is very close to the Malays. The usage of keris is determined by the intention of the holder. If he intends to use it for killing then it is violence, but if he uses it for defense then that is a different story. Keris is not only a symbol for the Malays but it is one of the components of culture in Malaysia. It can be a tourist attraction too. It can be beneficial to those who are involved in tourism. It is owned by everybody. It must be recognized that it can bring a lot of benefit to many, especially to the country.
We don’t have any problem for keris to be a symbol of unity for Malaysians. As long as they can understand that the keris belongs to everybody and not limited to a certain race only. Basically, it all depends on how we think that is based on the perception and expectation. If it is for the context of heritage and people really understand the concept of heritage than we as Malaysians have to accept it unconditionally without putting any barrier between races. Again, it all depends on their perceptions. On behalf of the museum, we don’t have any problem to highlight keris as a symbol of unity as long as people can accept it as a heritage for all.
A peasant or common soldier carries one type of keris that is cheap and normally short in length and lightweight to compare to the high rank warriors who own the nicely crafted high quality keris. This particular keris is only bestowed by the Sultan to men he likes and was made of special irons and brass by selected blacksmiths. Some of the elements can only be found from the Java Island, the reason was because that place has many volcanoes.
That is maybe why many English orientalists would relate keris to Java. The concept is just the same like Batik manufacturing, where the best Batik comes from Terengganu and people would appreciate Terengganu’s batik for its craftsmanship quality. The same perception goes to keris. People appreciate the Javanese keris because of its craftsmanship -- and why do you think Hang Tuah’s keris (the Taming Sari) was a Javanese keris? Therefore, the keris can be found all over the Malay archipelago but the best one comes from Java.
I’m not going to undermine the historians, but I personally do not believe in the story. If Hang Tuah ever exists, where is his tomb? Can we actually rely on his keris’s superpower to withstand the coming of the Portuguese? Furthermore, according to the keris protocol, Hang Tuah cannot use Taming Sari as his keris because it was not meant for him. The measurement is only for Taming Sari, that, if he also exists…The blacksmith actually gave an alternative view that was inclined with the historical reality and supported that the theory of duel between Hang Tuah and Taming Sari was fabricated. This was based on his understanding that every keris has its own measurement and could not be simply transferred to other people.
The true keris was personally requested by the owner and was made accordingly to the owner’s measurement. A keris cannot be passed over to other people as the measurement of the other person differs from its original owner. A lucky keris to the owner might not be lucky onto the next owner.
To make a real keris is not easy. Ancient blacksmiths used to spend three months or even sometimes more than a year just to finish a keris. Therefore it is hard to find a real keris nowadays, unless it is passed down to generations. Nowadays, people do not really care about the authenticity of the keris anymore because they hardly have vast knowledge about it. They (the customers) just walk in and make an order based on sample that we provided on the shelf, and we will deliver within a week. We do it for commercial and we use modern machinery. If a keris can be completed and delivered in less than a week, you would know that it is not the real one. The symbol has now narrowed down to the general term of weapon called keris -- no more on the art of making and identifying the owner like in ancient time. So, if the real blacksmith ever exists in this modern world, yes -- but they would not do it for commercial.
As a Malay you should keep one in your house. It is not for its mystical purpose but as a symbol of your Malay-ness. It doesn’t matter if it is not bestowed upon by the Sultan and it doesn’t matter too if it is not authentic because the most important thing is just to keep one for yourself and for your future generation to know that they are Malays. This is the only symbol that truly represents the Malays. The problem with the people now is that they tend to use the keris to arouse the moral of the Malays and at the same time intimidating other races (mostly politicians). That gives a bad image to the keris itself. Honestly, a sword is more dangerous than a keris. Unlike the keris, a fine sword like the Japanese Katana or the British Saber which can actually kill more people in a single blow. They have been used in many wars. They give pride to makers and the owners. Same goes to the Malays. We should have pride for the keris -- it is not necessary for us to not be apologetic to some extent. The perception of the people must be changed…but then again, it goes back to what had been printed and highlighted in the history book. The Malays also used sword in battlefields.
A keris is a weapon and at the same time a symbol to the Malays. Ancient men used it as symbol of status, some sort like a protocol. Our history did not highlight the later part and the media does not play its role to further educate the minds of the people. The media or the film makers only show the violence and treachery part of the keris. Who is to blame here?
I once read an article by a keris historian. According to the historian, the keris' origin is not based in one localization, but rather it is unique to the whole of Southeast Asia. The keris represents the union of the male and the female. The intricately designed blade represents the male while the equally intricate and beautiful scabbard with all its ornaments represents the female. The blade is never removed from its scabbard, in accordance with its symbology. Instead the keris was often contemplated upon for its deep underlying philosophical beauty.
This is very sensitive subject. But as far as I know the keris is symbol of power because not many people used keris that time and to me it is just a weapon -- that’s it.
I know a story from a Malay that a special keris can actually kill a man just by thrusting his enemy’s footprint. That is quite awesome! But I don’t think that magic comes from the keris; it must be the bearer himself with special kind of black magic or something, like the voodoo. So from where does the power come from? The keris or the man?
If people lack time, opportunity, and inclination to become fully acquainted with one another and with their environment, it is only natural for them to act as Rokeach's (1954, 1960, 1964) dogmatic, closed-minded media consumers-prompted and fulfilled by media whose stock in trade is production of such public opinion-molding propaganda.
“…creative communication accepts pluralism and displays expectations that its receivers should conduct further investigations of its observations, allegations, and conclusions, propaganda does not appear to do so.”