"Education aims at independence of judgement. Propaganda offers ready-made opinion for the unthinking herd."
Assalamu'alaikum wbt dan salam sejahtera. Selamat membaca.
~ MOHAB (1 September 2014 - 17.07.2014 - 19 Ramadhan 1435)

Jumaat, Oktober 05, 2012

SAMARKAND

Samarkand (Uzbek: Samarqand; Persian: سمرقند‎ from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town") is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. The city is most noted for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study. In the 14th century it became the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane) and is the site of his mausoleum (the Gur-e Amir). The Bibi-Khanym Mosque remains one of the city's most notable landmarks. The Registan was the ancient center of the city. In 2001, UNESCO added the city to its World Heritage List as Samarkand – Crossroads of Cultures.



Imam Muhammad Al Bukhari 
In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Neyshābūr that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256

Who else in Samarkand? 

Timurlane
Timur (Persian: تیمور‎ Timūr, Chagatai: Temür "iron"; 8 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane[1] (from Persian: تيمور لنگ‎, Timūr-i Lang, Aksak Timur "Timur the Lame" in Turkish), was a Turkic ruler[2][3][4] who conquered West, South and Central Asia and founded the Timurid dynasty. He was the grandfather of Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449,[5][6][7] and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled South Asia for centuries.[8][9][10][11][12] Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan.[13] Unlike his predecessors Timur was also a devout Muslim and referred to himself as the Sword of Islam.[14] His armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and multicultural. During his lifetime Timur would emerge as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the formidable Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire and the declining Sultanate of Delhi; Timur had also decisively defeated the Knights Hospitaler at Smyrna and since then referred to himself as a Ghazi. By the end of his reign Timur had also gained complete suzerainty over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate, and Golden Horde.

Timur is also recognized as a great patron of art and architecture, while he interacted with Muslim intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafez.[19]

Emir Timur
Samarkand bumi Timur digelar crossroad of cultures yang menghubungkan asia dan eropah melalui SeidenStrase - Silk Route. Sebab itulah yang dikatakan adanya hubungan Empire Ottoman dan Empire Siam Kedah zaman purbakala - hubungan sehalus sutera.

Descendant of Timurlane?

Ulugh Begh

Beliau ialah Mohammad Taragay ibnu Shah Rukh, cucu kepada Timurlane (1336-1405), panglima Mongol yang amat terkenal. Ulugh Beg dilahirkan di Soltaniyah, Iran. Beliau memerintah Empayar Timurid dari tahun 1447 sehingga 1449. Dalam konflik perebutan kuasa pemerintahan zamannya beliau telah di bunuh oleh anaknya, Abdul Latif yang kemudian menggantinya memerintah Empayar Timurid di Samarkand (Tajikistan). 



Sumbangan Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Beg adalah adalah seorang pemerintah, guru, saintis dan ahli astronomi. Pada zaman pemerintahannya beliau telah membina sebuah pusat pengajian ilmu di Samarkand dan menjemput ramai sarjana khasnya di bidang astronomi dan matematik agar belajar dan mengajar di sana. Beliau juga telah membina sebuah balai cerap yang diberi nama Zurkhani Zij. Balai cerap ini menggunakan sebuah sextant gergasi untuk menentukan kedudukan objek-objek samawi. Sextant itu diberi nama Sextant Fakhri. Dengan tanpa bantuan alatan moden seperti teleskop, Ulugh Beg telah berjaya mengenalpasti dan membina zij (jadual) menerangkan tentang kedudukan 1012 butir bintang secara tepat. Beliau juga mencatit kaedah-kaedah dan teori sfera geometri dan trigonometri. Hasil kerja beliau ditulis dalam bahasa Arab kemudian diterjemahkan kepada bahasa Parsi dan Latin dan menjadi rujukan sehingga ke Eropah.


Ulug Begh @ Mohammad Taragay ibnu Shah Rukh
(lihat mahkota dikepalanya - ia adalah serban atau destar)

Babur Syah
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530; sometimes also spelt Baber or Babar) was a conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother; hence, he identified his lineage as Timurid and Chaghatay-Turkic. He was greatly influenced by Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in the Indian subcontinent.[1][2]

MAHA THAMMARAJA, ZAHIRUDDIN BABUR SYAH, RAJA MONGGOL INDIA
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
He was born in Farghana - Samarkand
House:Timurid
Father:Umar Sheykh Mirza, ʿAmīr of Farghana
Mother:Qutlaq Nigar Khanum
another source said he was born:23 February 1483 in
Andijan, Uzbekistan
Died :26 December 1530 (age 47)
Agra, India
Burial: Kabul, Afghanistan
Religion: Sunni Islam

Well actually Andijan is capital of Farghana. Andijan was an important stop on the Silk Road, lying roughly mid-way between Kashgar and Khodjend

Baginda inilah yang berkahwin dengan Tengku Nor Aisyah @ Maha Inta Tiral Puteri Sultan Rijaluddin 1424 (UUK MS14) ibni Sultan Muhammad Johan Syah Berdaulat di Melaka 1385, (UUK MS87). Baginda mempunyai ramai isteri sudah tentu anak juga ramai.

Pertemuan diantara Empire Mughal dan Empayar Siam Kedah Merong Mahawangsa inilah yang menghubungkan seluruh benua Asia pada satu ketika dahulu menjadi satu, menghasilkan sebuah empayar Islam yang amat kuat.

Manakala perkahwinannya dengan Tengku Nor Aisyah disebelah sini pula menghasilkan empat orang putera, salah seorangnya adalah Syah Alam Yang Maha Mulia Nai Hisbu Madazam Syah Ibni Sultan Zahirudin Babur Syah, seorang lagi adalah Nai Hassan, Raja Santubong - San Tu Bong bermaksud Hassan pegang perintah (...nun dibumi Kenyalang sana), seorang lagi di wilayah Pahang negeri terbesar di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu dan seorang lagi diPagoh menguasai wilayah Johor - Riau.

Syah Alam Yang Maha Mulia Nai Hisbu Madazam Syah Ibni Sultan Zahirudin Babur Syah, ayuthianya (tempat semayam) di Beruas, Perak.

Daripada Nai Hisbu Madazam Syah ini pula menghasilkan tiga beradik iaitu Sultan Mahmud Syah Melaka 1650 (UUK MS98), Narai Maharaja Ayuthia @ Hang Tuah dan Per Abu. Yang ni depa tak cerita la. Siapa pula yang bergelar Tun Perak? Apa nama panjangnya?

King Narai @ Hang Tuah was the king of Ayutthaya from 1656 to 1688
Barulah betul Raja Siam semua pakat berjambang berjanggut. 
Pasai gene Tok Nek depa - Panglima Perang semuanya tu. Barulah terangkat!
Orang Thai mana ada nak tumbuh janggut nak buh misai pun segan, sebatu baru sehelai (sejarah versi baru depa tukaq la clean shaved - habih licin si Raja Narai)

King Narai di Ayuthia, Siam adalah seorang Muslim

Oleh kerana itu Empayar Islam Benua Siam Kedah mempunyai pengaruh Parsi yang kuat. Ini tidak boleh dinafikan kerana memang influence Parsi itu sangat kuat sejak dahulu kala lagi. Pengaruh itu bukan sahaja dirantau sebelah sini, malah sehingga ke Eropah sehingga ke China - sehinggakan perkataan Parsi Akhund (Imam) disadur oleh China menjadi Ahong. Itulah dikatakan sebagai cross-cultured yang menjadi pakaian sebahagian daripada orang rantau dibawah angin.

Dan bukanlah semua pengaruh kebudayaan Parsi itu berkiblatkan Syiah kerana Raja Babur Syah itu sendiri adalah Sunni.


Oleh itu macamana Portugis tak kecut? Terang-terangan telah ditulis kedatangan mereka itu 'ronggeng jingling nona' tidak cukup kakitangan yang mahir. (baca Caesar Timur - Alfonso)

~ Begitulah serba sedikit cerita kebangkitan purbakala bumi Timur di Samarkand ~ 
Realitinya ... Kau tak terasing.

Etymology
The city was known by an abbreviated name of Marakanda when Alexander the Great took it in 332 BC. There are various theories of how Marakanda evolved into Samarkanda/Samarkan. One derives the name from the Old Persian asmara, "stone", "rock", and Sogdian kand, "fort", "town".[1] Others less convincingly derive the name from the old Turkic "Semiz-Kent" meaning "Rich City".[citation needed]. Since the name Marakanda was already in existence 2300 years ago and long before anyone had heard of Turks in that region of Transoxiana, this version is likely a folk etymology.

Founded circa 700 BC by the Sogdians, Samarkand has been one of the main centres of Sogdian civilization from its early days. It was already the capital of the Sogdian satrapy under the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia when Alexander the Great conquered it in 329 BC. The Greeks referred to Samarkand as Maracanda.[3]

Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest (except at the time of early Sassanids, such as Shapur I).[4] In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.[5]

At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came under Arab control. Under Abbasid rule, the legend goes,[6] the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners from the Battle of Talas in 751, which led to the first paper mill in the Islamic world being founded in Samarkand. The invention then spread to the rest of the Islamic world, and from there to Europe.

From the 6th to the 13th century it grew larger and more populous than modern Samarkand[citation needed] and was controlled by the Western Turks, Arabs (who converted the area to Islam), Persian Samanids, Kara-Khanid Turks, Seljuk Turks, Kara-Khitan, and Khorezmshah before the Mongols arrived in 1220.

Although Genghis Khan "did not disturb the inhabitants [of the city] in any way," according to Juvaini he killed all who took refuge in the citadel and the mosque. He also pillaged the city completely and conscripted 30,000 young men along with 30,000 craftsmen. Samarkand suffered at least one other Mongol sack by Khan Baraq to get treasure he needed to pay an army. The town took many decades to recover from these disasters.

The Travels of Marco Polo, where Polo records his journey along the Silk Road, describes Samarkand as a "a very large and splendid city..." Here also is related the story of a Christian church in Samarkand, which miraculously remained standing after a portion of its central supporting column was removed.

14th century
In 1365, a revolt against Mongol control occurred in Samarkand.[7] In 1370, Timur decided to make Samarkand the capital of his empire, which extended from India to Turkey. During the next 35 years he built a new city and populated it with artisans and craftsmen from all of the places he had conquered. Timur gained a reputation as a patron of the arts and Samarkand grew to become the centre of the region of Transoxiana. During this time the city had a population of about 150,000.[8]

15th century
Between 1424 and 1429, the great astronomer Ulugh Beg built the Samarkand Observatory. The sextant was 11 metres long and once rose to the top of the surrounding three-storey structure, although it was kept underground to protect it from earthquakes. Calibrated along its length, it was the world’s largest 90-degree quadrant at the time.[9] However, the observatory was destroyed by religious fanatics in 1449.[9]

This is my 400 posts - not as much posts if to compare to many, but a significant post to me personally, indeed.

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