"Education aims at independence of judgement. Propaganda offers ready-made opinion for the unthinking herd."
Assalamu'alaikum wbt dan salam sejahtera. Selamat membaca.
~ MOHAB (1 September 2014 - 17.07.2014 - 19 Ramadhan 1435)

Isnin, April 21, 2014

Peristiwa Sejarah Membentuk Jiwa Bangsa?

Pernahkah kita terfikir apakah peristiwa-peristiwa besar yang telah berlaku di dunia dan kaitannya dengan sejarah Tanah Melayu dalam tahun-tahun yang sama seperti berikut?

Emirs & Grand Sharifs of Mecca 
AD 1803 - 1917  
Mecca was under Ottoman governors from Egypt from 1819 until 1840 while the city was under occupation. As pashas of Mecca, the representatives of Ottoman control, the grand sharifs were also able to claim the title of emir of Mecca, increasing in power until 1916, when Sharif Husayn rebelled. 

1803 - 1827 Yahya (II) ibn Surur (era Perang Musuh Bisik Pertama di Tanah Melayu)

1818 - 1822 Unable to spare forces to retake Makkah and Madinah in the Hijaz themselves, the Ottomans send Muhammed Ali Pasha, viceroy of Egypt to destroy the Saudi state. He does so in a merciless campaign which ends with the siege of Diriyya. Arabia is temporarily occupied by the pasha's forces. However, the garrisons in Arabia are unable to prevent the rise of a new Saudi state. 

1827 Abdul Mutalib ibn Ghalib Aug to Sep only. 

1827 - 1836 Muhammad ibn Abdul Muin (era Perang Musuh Bisik Kedua di Tanah Melayu)

1836 - 1843 The position is vacant during the rise of the Second Saudi SateIn 1838, Muhammed Ali of Egypt re-occupies Arabia to destroy the Saudis and restore order, but it takes until 1843 before that mission is fully achieved. 

1840 - 1851 Muhammad ibn Abdul Muin Second term of office. 

1851 - 1856 Abdul Mutalib ibn Ghalib Second term of office. Died 1886. 

1856 - 1858 Muhammad ibn Abdul Muin Third term of office. 

1858 - 1877 Abdullah Kamil Pasha ibn Muhammad (era Perang Musuh Bisik Ketiga di Tanah Melayu, era Perang Saudara di Tanah Melayu dan era British mencengkamkan kukunya di Semenanjung dan Borneo)

1877 - 1880 Hussein ibn Muhammad 

1880 - 1882 Abdul Mutalib ibn Ghalib Third term of office. 

1882 - 1905 Aun ar-Rafiq Pasha ibn Muhammad 

1905 - 1908 Ali Pasha ibn Abdullah 

1908 - 1916 Husayn / Hussein Pasha ibn Ali Son. Commanded the Arab Revolt. King of Hijaz in 1916. (era Perang Dunia Pertama dan era Perjanjian Bangkok yang memisahkan Tanah Melayu dan Selatan Siam)

1916 Ali Haidar Pasha Ottoman sharif appointed to replace Husayn, unsuccessfully. (sejarah dahulu tidak menceritakan hal Sharif Ali Haidar Pasha pilihan Ottoman ini, yang kita ketahui hanyalah hal Sharif Hussein sahaja)

1916 Husayn is opposed in Medina by Ali Haidar Pasha, the Ottoman-designated sharif to replace Husayn, ultimately unsuccessfully. 

Kings of the Hijaz & Grand Sharifs of Mecca
AD 1916 - 1925 

The Arab Revolt between 1916-1918 against the Ottoman empire was led by Husayn's eldest son, Faysal. Operations on the ground were commanded jointly by Sharif Ali, and British Army officer T E Lawrence. Lawrence managed to combine the power of several Arabic tribes to drive the Turks north in a series of campaigns in coordination with the British forces in the Middle East. Once the Arabs captured Damascus they secured a semblance of power (very well depicted in the feature film Lawrence of Arabia). In subsequent bargaining with the British who now controlled the region, Husayn claimed Arabia and Faysal became king of Greater Syria. 



1916 - 1925 Husayn King. Final claimant of Islamic caliphate (1924-1925). Died 1931

1922 Britain assumes official governance of Palestine under the terms of its League of Nations mandate. At this time, Palestine encompasses not only modern Israel and the West Bank, but all of the Transjordan territory to the east of the river of the same name. 

1923 - 1924 The Ottoman empire collapses and on 29 October 1923 a republic of Turkey is declared. 

On 1 November the newly founded parliament formally dissolves the sultanate, and in the same year British-administered Transjordan is separated from Palestine. 

On 1 March 1924, the caliphate is formally abolished, and two days later the title is claimed by Husayn. The claim is not met with universal support from fellow Arabs, especially the Al-Saud, who care nothing of it. 

The Arab Revolt of 1916-1918 helped to destroy Ottoman hegemony over Arabia 

1925 Ali Son of Husayn. King. Last grand sharif. Died 1934. 

1925 The Hashemites are overthrown in Arabia by Abdul Aziz, also known as Ibn Saud. Abdul Aziz declares himself king of the Hijaz in 1926. Hashemite rule to the north of Arabia continues with Husayn's sons, with Abdullah in Transjordan, and Faysal in Iraq. Husayn and Ali both find a new home in Transjordan, where Husayn continues to use the title of caliph. (pada ketika situasi di Mekah dan Madinah tidak stabil akibat perang, pembunuhan dan pertukaran kuasa, begitu juga dengan keadaan dan kedudukan masyarakat Melayu Jawi yang sudah sekian lama menetap di sana. Mereka juga terganggu akibat keadaan yang tidak menentu tersebut. Tetapi syukur, sehingga ke hari ini kebajikan dan keselamatan orang Melayu Jawi dan nusantara masih lagi terjamin dan dihormati di sana.)

Hashemite Transjordan
AD 1918 - 1946 

The area of modern Jordan which lies on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea was, in the second and first millennia BC, part of the kingdoms of Edom and Moab. Successive empires then controlled the region, including those of Babylon, the Persians, and the Seleucid Greeks, before a period of fragmentation in which the Nabataeans and Kedarites flourished. Then Rome became the main authority, although inroads were made by the Parthians and Sassanids. The Byzantines lost the region to the Islamic empire in the seventh century and this, in turn, was taken over by the Ottoman empireThe Arab Revolt (led by the Hashemites) and the British campaign of 1916-1918 pushed them out, eventually paving the way for Arab independence following the conclusion of the Second World War. 

1918 - 1922 Transjordan is controlled by the British military forces that had been instrumental in freeing all of Palestine of Ottoman control (the initial steps towards this control are shown in the feature film Lawrence of Arabia). 

1921 - 1949 Abdullah I Son of Husayn. (era Perang Dunia Kedua dan era Penubuhan Parti-parti Politik di Tanah Melayu)

Emir (1921-1946), and then first king of Jordan. 

1922 Britain assumes official governance of Palestine under the terms of its League of Nations mandate. At this time, Palestine encompasses not only modern Israel and the West Bank, but all of the Transjordan territory to the east of the river of the same name. 

1923 The Jordan state is created as a British protectorate to be governed by Abdullah, partly in reward for his agreement not to attack French-held Syria following their expulsion of his brother, Faysal in 1920

1937 On 7 July the British 'Peel Commission' recommends partitioning Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states. Abdullah supports this as it means the Arab section will be incorporated into Transjordan. While the Jews accept the commission's findings reluctantly, the other Arabs states do not, and it is eventually dropped. 

1946 Following the conclusion of the Second World War, in which Jordan had remained a staunch ally of Britain, the British mandate for Transjordan comes to an end. The emirate's independence is announced on 25 May, as the 'Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan'. 

end.
source:http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsMiddEast/ArabicHashemites.htm

Tidak mustahil peristiwa-peristiwa yang telah berlaku di atas ini; secara langsung atau tidak, samada yang nyata atau yang telah disembunyikan, telah pun yang membentuk jiwa bangsa dan pemikiran kita seperti hari ini. 

Yang nyata apabila institusi kesultanan Ottoman Turki itu di bubar dan ianya menjadi sebuah republik, maka terlerailah ikatan sebuah negara di bawah satu naungan, dan lebih mudahlah sesebuah negeri itu menuntut wilayah autonomi dan kemerdekaan dengan pemerintahan sendiri. 

Boleh atau tidak perkara yang sama berlaku di Tanah Melayu iaitu menjadi bercerai berai, jika kita menjadi republik of Malaya? 

Yang jelas perebutan kuasa dan harta tidak mengenal darah daging dan juga saudara.

Wahabi peduli apa?



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